{9} The sextant is a mathematical instrument by which the different degrees of longitude and latitude are determined, and the hour known. The chronometers also are set by it. In order to find the latitude the ship is in, an observation is taken at noon, but only when the sun shines. This last is absolutely necessary, since it is from the shadow cast upon the figures of the instrument that the reckoning is made. The longitude can be determined both morning and afternoon, as the sun, in this case, is not necessary.

{11} The heat does not require to be very great in order to melt the pitch in a ship's seams. I have seen it become soft, and form bladders, when the thermometer stood at 81.5 in the sun.

{12} Every four hours the state of the wind, how many miles the vessel has made, in fact, every occurrence, is noted down in the log with great exactitude. The captain is obliged to show this book to the owners of the ship at the conclusion of the voyage.

{13} Some years ago a sailor made an attempt to scale the Sugarloaf. He succeeded in attaining the summit, but never came down again. Most likely he made a false step and was precipitated into the sea.

{14} The worthy Lallemand family received her, a few days after her arrival into their house.

{23a} The princess was three weeks old.

{23b} Rockets and small fireworks are always let off at every religious festival, some before the church, and others at a short distance from it. The most ludicrous part of the affair is, that this is always done in open day.

{27} They are differently paid, according to what they can do. The usual hire of a maid-servant is from ten to twelve shillings per month; for a cook, twenty-four to forty; for a nurse, thirty-eight to forty; for a skilful labourer, fifty to seventy.

{34a} Truppa is a term used to designate ten mules driven by a negro; in most instances a number of truppas are joined together, and often make up teams or caravans of 100 or 200 mules. Everything in the Brazils is conveyed upon mules.

{34b} A cord, with a noose at the end; the native inhabitants of South America use it so skilfully that they catch the most savage animals with it.

{38} Fazenda is equivalent to our word "plantation."

{39} Kabi is African grass, which is planted all over the Brazils, as grass never grows there of its own accord. It is very high and reed-like.

{40} Rost (roaster) is employed to denote partly a strip of low brushwood, partly the place where a wood has stood previously to being burnt.

{42} All through Brazil, carna secca is one of the principal articles of food, both for whites and blacks. It comes from Buenos Ayres, and consists of beef cut into long, thin, broad stripes, salted and dried in the open air.

{47} Under the term "whites," are included not only those Europeans who have lately immigrated, but also the Portuguese, who have been settled in the country for centuries.

{50} This wholesome plant grows very commonly in the Brazils.

{53} In the southern hemisphere the seasons, as regards the months, are exactly the contrary to what they are in the northern. For instance, when it is winter on one side of the Equator it is summer on the other, etc.

{55} Maroon negroes are those negroes who have run away from their masters. They generally collect in large bands, and retire into the recesses of the virgin forests, whence, however, they often emerge to steal and plunder; their depredations are not unfrequently accompanied by murder.

{59} The Rio Plata is one of the largest rivers in Brazil.

{60} Other captains assured me that it was only possible for men-of-war to pass through the Straits of Magellan, as the passage requires a great number of hands. Every evening the ship must be brought to an anchor, and the crew must constantly be in readiness to trim or reef the sails, on account of the various winds which are always springing up.

{62} The glass sank in the day-time to 48 and 50 degrees, and at night to 28 degrees below Zero.

{73} All the Indians are Christians (Protestants), but I fear only in name.

{76} Elephantiasis, in this country, generally shows itself in the feet, and extends up as far as the calves of the legs. These portions of the body, when so affected, are greatly swollen, and covered with scurf and blotches, so that they really might be taken for those of an elephant.

{78} I purposely abstain from mentioning the names of any of the gentlemen at Tahiti, a piece of reserve which I think entitles me to their thanks.

{86} Up to the present period, Tahiti has produced nothing for exportation, and therefore all vessels have to clear out in ballast. The island is important to the French, as a port where their ships in the Pacific may stop and refit.

{91a} The expense of living at an hotel in Macao, Victoria, and Canton is from four to six dollars a-day (16s. to 24s.).

{91b} Carl Gutzlaff was born on the 8th of July, 1803, at Pyritz, in Pomerania. As a boy he was distinguished for his piety and extraordinary talent. His parents apprenticed him to a leather- seller. In this capacity he was noted for his industry, although he was far from contented with his position; and, in the year 1821, he found an opportunity of presenting a poem, in which he expressed his sentiments and wishes, to the King of Prussia. The king recognised the talent of the struggling youth, and opened to him a career in accordance with his inclination. In the year 1827 he proceeded as a missionary to Batavia, and, at a later period, to Bintang, where he applied himself with such assiduity to the study of Chinese, that in the space of two years he knew it well enough to preach in it. In December, 1831, he went to Macao, where he established a school for Chinese children, and commenced his translation of the Bible into Chinese. He founded, in conjunction with Morrison, a Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China, and edited a monthly Chinese magazine, in which he endeavoured to interest the people upon history, geography, and literature. In 1832 and 1833 he penetrated as far as the province of Fo-Kien.

Gutzlaff's Travels have made us acquainted with several very important facts connected with the different Chinese dialects, and are also of great worth to other scientific points of view. They are especially useful in enabling us to form a correct opinion as to the merits of the works that have lately appeared on China; and everyone must acknowledge his rare talent, must value his immovable fixedness of purpose, and must admire his zealous perseverance in the cause of science, and his unshaken belief in the principles of his religion. (Dr. Gutzlaff died in November, 1851).

{93} All large vessels have two painted eyes let into the prow; with these, as the Chinese believe, they are better able to find their way.

{95} There is only one mail a month from Europe.

{101} When they copy a picture they divide it, like our own artists, into squares.

{102a} A pikul of raw opium is worth about 600 dollars (120 pounds).

{102b} I had more especially reason to fear this latter circumstance, as the people had given out that on the 12th or 13th of August, at the latest, there would be a revolution, in which all the Europeans would lose their lives. My state of mind may easily be imagined, left, as I was, entirely alone with the Chinese servants.

{103} One of the ports which were opened to the English in 1842.

{104} His costume was composed of a wide over-garment reaching to the knees, and furnished with flowing arms, and, underneath this, trousers of white silk. The upper garment was made of brocade of very vivid colours and an extraordinary pattern. On his breast he wore two birds as marks of his rank, and a necklace of precious stones. His shoes, composed of black silk, were turned up into points at the extremities. On his head he wore a conical velvet hat with a gilt button.

{105} The reader must know that these animals are looked upon as particularly sacred.

{108} The town of Canton is nine miles in circumference. It is the residence of a Viceroy, and divided by walls into the Chinese and the Tartar town. The population of the town itself is reckoned at 400,000, while it is calculated that 60,000 persons live in the boats and schampans, and about 200,000 in the immediate vicinity. The number of Europeans settled here is about 200.

{110} The Chinese adopt white for mourning.

{112} Noble Chinese ladies pass a much more secluded life than Eastern women. They are allowed to visit one another very seldom, and that only in well-closed litters. They have neither public baths nor gardens in which they can meet.

{114} The leaves of this gathering are plucked with the greatest care by children and young people, who are provided with gloves and are bound to pick every leaf separately.

{116} 173 dollars the chief cabin, 117 the second (34 pounds 12s. and 23 pounds 8s.)

{118} These steamers carry the mails, and make the voyage from Canton to Calcutta once a month, touching at Singapore on their way.

{120a} Horses cannot be bred here; they have all to be imported.

{120b} The East India Company, to which the island belongs, have a governor and English troops here.

{125} The mangostan is unanimously pronounced the finest fruit in the world.

{128} One of the four had been removed from the first cabin, because it was asserted that he was somewhat cracked, and did not always know what he said or did.

{150} The finest and most costly muslin is manufactured in the province of Dacca, and costs two rupees (4s.), or even two rupees and a half the ell.

{153} The hurgila, a kind of stork, that eats dead bodies, and is frequently to be seen near the rivers in India.

{158a} At the period of my visit there were about 782 of them.

{158b} Rajmahal was, in the seventeenth century, the capital of Bengal.

{160a} Monghyr is termed the Birmingham of India, on account of its extensive manufactories of cutlery and weapons. Its population is about 30,000 souls.

{160b} Patna is the capital of the province of "Bechar," and was once celebrated for the number of its Buddhist temples. Near Patna was situated the most famous town of ancient India, namely, "Parlibothra." Patna contains a great many cotton and a few opium factories.

{161} In all Indian, Mahomedan, and in fact all countries which are not Christian, it is a very difficult task to obtain anything like an exact calculation of the number of inhabitants, as nothing is more hateful to the population than such computations.

{162} I landed with two travellers at Patna, and rode on to Deinapore in the evening, where our steamer anchored for the night.

{170} If a Hindoo has no son, he adopts one of his relations, in order that he may fulfil the duties of a son at the funeral of his adoptive father.

{173} The dislike which the Hindoos evince towards the Europeans, is chiefly in consequence of the latter showing no honour to the cow, of their eating ox-flesh, and drinking brandy; and that they spit in their houses, and even in the temples, and wash their mouths with their fingers, etc. They call the Europeans "Parangi." This disrespect is said to make the Hindoos dislike the Christian religion.

{177} Many of the more recent Indian towns were built by the Mongolians, or were so much altered by them that they altogether lost their original character. India was conquered by the Mongolians as early as the tenth century.

{183} At the time of its greatest prosperity it had 2,000,000 inhabitants.

{185} Some writers describe this colossal crystal as being twenty-five feet long.

{190} If these two towers did belong to a mosque, why were they built of such different sizes?

{193} The cheprasses are servants of the English government. They wear red cloth scarfs, and a brass plate on the shoulders, with the name of the town to which they belong engraved upon it. Each of the higher English officials are allowed to have one or more of these people in their service. The people consider them much superior to the ordinary servants.

{200} Children are generally considered as impure until the ninth year, and are therefore not subject to the laws of their religion.

{204} The god Vishnu is represented as a tortoise.

{209} Although only the beginning of spring, the temperature rose during the day as high as 95-99 degrees Fah.

{212a} Mundsch is the royal tutor, writer, or interpreter.

{212b} It is well known that saltpetre produces a considerable reduction of temperature.

{213} Indor lies 2,000 feet above the level of the sea.

{225} Monsoons are the periodical winds which blow during one-half the year from east to west, during the other half from west to east.

{226} The Black Town is that part of the town in which the poorer classes of inhabitants reside. That neither beauty nor cleanliness are to be sought there, is a matter of course.

{227} There are in all only 6,000 Parsees in the island of Bombay.

{228} And yet Bombay is the principal seat of the Fire-worshippers.

{268} This is an error: M. Botta made the first attempt to excavate the Ninevite remains at Khorsabad. Mr. Layard had, moreover, commenced his excavations before he received the countenance of the British Museum authorities. See "Nineveh - the Buried City of the East," one of the volumes of the "National Illustrated Library," for the rectification of this and other errors in Madame Pfeiffer's account.

{270} The manuscripts of the journey through Hindostan as far as Mosul miscarried for more than a year and a half. I gave them up as lost. This was the cause of the delay in the publication of my "Journey round the world."

{279} I had picked up enough of the language between here and Mosul to understand this much.

{287} Mela is the name of the Indian religious festivals at which thousands of people assemble. The missionaries frequently travel hundreds of miles to them in order to preach to the people.

{305} Tradition says that the country about Erivan is that part of the earth which was first of all peopled. Noah and his family dwelt here, both before and after the deluge; the Garden of Eden is also said to have been situated here. Erivan was formerly called Terva, and was the chief city of Armenia. Not far from Erivan lies the chief sacred relic of the Armenian Christians - the cloister Ecs- miazim. The church is simple in construction; the pillars, seventy- three feet high, consist of blocks of stone joined together. In the Treasury were, formerly, two of the nails with which Christ was crucified, the lance with which he was stabbed in the side, and, lastly, a seamless garment of Christ. It is asserted that in the centre of the church is the spot where Noah, after his delivery, erected an altar and offered sacrifice. Besides these, the church is in the possession of innumerable important relics.

{308} This is carried to such an extent that if a traveller has his horses already put to, and is in the carriage, and an officer arrives, the horses are taken off and given to the latter.

{309} Georgia was called Iberia by the ancients. Formerly, this country extended from Tauris and Erzerum, as far as the Tanais, and was called Albania. It is a country of mountains. The river Kurry, also called Cyrus, flows through the midst. On this river the famous conqueror of Persia, Cyrus, was exposed in his childhood. Tiflis was formerly one of the finest towns of Persia.

{312} His wives I dare not speak of, as the Mussulmen consider this an affront.

{314} The River Ribon, also called Rione, is considered to be one of the four rivers of Paradise, and was known by the name of Pison. Its waters were formerly held sacred. On account of the number of trunks of trees, it is unnavigable for large ships.

{320a} The Circassians are so wild and warlike that no one dare venture into the interior of the country. Little is known of their habits, customs, or religion. Bordering on Circassia are the Atkans, who inhabit the coast country between Mingrelia and Circassia, and are also wild and given to plunder.

{320b} Large plains covered with short grass.

{321} Mithridates lived in Pantikapaum. The hill at Kertsch is called to this day "Mithridates' Seat." During the excavations in it, which have been made since 1832, many remains were found, such as funeral urns, implements of sacrifice, Grecian inscriptions, handsome figures, and groups.

{330a} Constantinople is not lighted - whoever goes out without a lantern is considered suspicious, and taken to the next watch-house.

{330b} The streets of Constantinople are narrow, full of holes, and uneven, so that carriages cannot be taken everywhere and people are obliged to manage with small fire-engines carried by four men.

{335} Here, where I arrived about four weeks after leaving Odessa, the sun appeared as hot as with us in July. The vegetation was greatly in want of rain, and the leaves were almost dying from the heat; while in Odessa they were already killed by the cold.