I once more embarked in an English steamer, the "Braganza," of 350 horse power, that left Singapore for Ceylon on the 7th of October. The distance between the two places is 1,900 miles.

The treatment I experienced on board this vessel was, it is true, a little different from that on board the other, although it was nearly as bad. There were four of us in the second cabin; {128} we dined alone, and had a mulatto servant to attend upon us. Unfortunately, he was afflicted with elephantiasis, and his appearance did not at all tend to whet the edge of our appetites.

During the 7th and 8th of October, we held our course through the Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatra from the peninsula, and during all this time we never lost sight of land. Malacca is, near the coast, merely hilly; but further in the interior the hills swell into a fine mountain range. To our left lay a number of mountainous islands, which completely intercepted our view of Sumatra.

But if the scenery around us was not remarkable, the spectacle on board the vessel itself was highly interesting. The crew was composed of seventy-nine persons, comprising Chinese, Malays, Cingalese, Bengalese, Hindostanese, and Europeans. As a general rule, those of each country generally took their meals separately with their own countrymen. They all had immense plates of rice, and little bowls full of curry; a few pieces of dried fish supplied the place of bread. They poured the curry over the rice, and mixing the whole together with their hands, made it into small balls which they put into their mouths with a small piece of fish; about half their food used generally to fall back again into their plates.

The costume of these people was very simple. Many of them had nothing more than a pair of short trousers on, with a dirty old turban, and even the place of this was sometimes supplied by a coloured rag, or a cast-off sailor's cap. The Malays wore long cloths wound round their bodies, with one end hanging over their shoulder. The Chinese preserved intact their usual costume and mode of life; and the coloured servants of the ship's officers were the only ones who were occasionally well and even elegantly dressed. Their costume consisted of white trousers, wide upper garments, also white, with white sashes, silk jackets, and small embroidered white caps, or handsome turbans.

The manner in which all these poor coloured people were treated was certainly not in accordance with Christian principles. No one ever addressed them but in the roughest manner, and they were kicked and cuffed about on every occasion; even the dirtiest little European cabin-boy on board was allowed to act in the most cruel manner, and play off the most ignoble practical jokes upon them. Unhappy creatures! how is it possible that they should feel any love for Christians?

On the 9th of October we landed on the small island of Pinang. The town of the same name lies in the midst of a small plain, which forms the half of an isthmus. Not far from the town rises a picturesque mountain range.

I received five hours' leave, which I devoted to riding about in all directions through the town in a palanquin, and even going a little distance into the country. All that I could see resembled what I had already seen at Singapore. The town itself is not handsome, but the contrary is the case with the country houses, which are all situated in beautiful gardens. The island is intersected by a great number of excellent roads.

From one of the neighbouring mountains there is said to be a very fine prospect of Pinang, a part of Malacca, and the sea, and, on the road to the mountain, a waterfall. Unfortunately, the few hours at my disposal did not allow me to see everything.

The greatest portion of the population of this island consists of Chinese, who perform all the manual labour, and engross all the retail trade.

On the 11th of October we saw the small island of Pulo-Rondo, which appertains to Sumatra. We now took the shortest line across the Bay of Bengal, and beheld land no more until we came in sight of Ceylon.

On the afternoon of the 17th of October, we neared Ceylon. I strained my anxious eyes to catch a glimpse of it as soon as possible, for it is always described as being a second Eden; some go so far as to affirm that our common father, Adam, settled there on his expulsion from Paradise, and, as a proof of this, adduce the fact of many places in the island, such as Adam's Peak, Adam's Bridge, etc., still bearing his name. I breathed the very air more eagerly, hoping, like other travellers, to inhale the fragrant odours wafted to me from the plantations of costly spices.

It was one of the most magnificent sights I ever beheld, to observe the island rising gradually from the sea, and to mark the numerous mountain ranges, which intersect Ceylon in every direction, becoming every instant more defined, their summits still magically lighted by the setting sun, while the thick cocoa-groves, the hills, and plains lay enveloped in dusky night. The fragrant odours, however, were wanting, and the vessel smelt, as usual, of nothing more than tar, coals, steam, and oil.

About 9 in the evening, we arrived before the harbour at Pointe de Galle, but, as the entrance is very dangerous, we quietly hove-to for the night. On the following morning two pilots came on board and took us safely through the narrow passage of deep water leading into the port.

Hardly were we landed before we were surrounded by a crowd of people with precious stones, pearls, tortoiseshell, and ivory articles for sale. It is possible that a connoisseur may sometimes make a very advantageous purchase; but I would advise those who have not much experience in these things, not to be dazzled by the size and splendour of the said precious stones and pearls, as the natives, according to all accounts, have learnt from Europeans the art of profiting as much as they can by a favourable opportunity.

Pointe de Galle is charmingly situated: in the fore-ground are some fine groups of rock, and in the back-ground, immediately adjoining the little town, which is protected by fortifications, rise magnificent forests of palms. The houses present a neat appearance; they are low, and shaded by trees, which, in the better streets, are planted so as to form alleys.

Pointe de Galle is the place of rendezvous for the steamers from China, Bombay, Calcutta, and Suez. Passengers from Calcutta, Bombay, and Suez, do not stop more than twelve, or, at most, twenty- four hours; but those proceeding from China to Calcutta have to wait ten or fourteen days for the steamer that carries them to their destination. This delay was to me very agreeable, as I profited by it to make an excursion to Candy.

There are two conveyances from Pointe de Galle to Colombo - the mail which leaves every day, and a coach which starts three times a week. The distance is seventy-three English miles, and the journey is performed in ten hours. A place in the mail costs 1 pounds 10s., and in the coach 13s. As I was pressed for time, I was obliged to go by the first. The roads are excellent; not a hill, not a stone is there to impede the rapid rate at which the horses, that are changed every eight miles, scamper along.

The greater portion of the road traversed thick forests of cocoa-trees, at a little distance from the sea-shore, and the whole way was more frequented and more thickly studded with houses than anything I ever saw even in Europe. Village followed village in quick succession, and so many separate houses were built between them, that there was not a minute that we did not pass one. I remarked also some small towns, but the only one worthy of notice was Calturi, where I was particularly struck by several handsome houses inhabited by Europeans.

Along the road-side, under little roofs of palm-leaves, were placed large earthen vessels filled with water, and near them cocoa-nut shells to drink out of. Another measure for the accommodation of travellers, which is no less worthy of praise, consists in the establishment of little stone buildings, roofed in, but open at the sides, and furnished with benches. In these buildings many wayfarers often pass the night.

The number of people and vehicles that we met made the journey appear to me very short. There were specimens of all the various races which compose the population of Ceylon. The Cingalese, properly so called, are the most numerous, but, besides these, there are Indians, Mahomedans, Malays, natives of Malabar, Jews, Moors, and even Hottentots. I saw numerous instances of handsome and agreeable physiognomies among those of the first three races; the Cingalese youths and boys, in particular, are remarkably handsome. They possess mild, well-formed features, and are so slim and finely built, that they might easily be mistaken for girls; an error into which it is the more easy to fall from their manner of dressing their hair. They wear no covering on their head, and comb back all their hair, which is then fastened behind by means of a comb, with a flat, broad plate, four inches high. This kind of head-dress looks anything but becoming in the men. The Mahomedans and Jews have more marked features; the latter resemble the Arabs, and, like them, have noble physiognomies. The Mahomedans and Jews, too, are easily recognised by their shaven heads, long beards, and small white caps or turbans. Many of the Indians, likewise, wear turbans; but the most have only a simple piece of cloth tied round their head, which is also the case with the natives of Malacca and Malabar. The Hottentots allow their coal-black hair to fall in rude disorder over their foreheads and half-way down their necks. With the exception of the Mahomedans and Jews, none of these different people bestow much care upon their dress. Save a small piece of cloth of about a hand's-breadth, and fastened between their legs, they go about naked. Those who are at all dressed, wear short trousers and an upper garment.

I saw very few women, and these only near their huts, which they appear to leave less than any females with whom I am acquainted. Their dress, also, was exceedingly simple, consisting merely of an apron bound round their loins, a short jacket that exposed rather than covered the upper part of their body, and a sort of rag hanging over their head. Many were enveloped in large pieces of cloth worn loosely about them. The borders and lobes of their ears were pierced and ornamented with ear-rings, while on their feet and arms, and round their necks, they wore chains and bracelets of silver, or some other metal, and round one of their toes an extremely massive ring.

Any one would suppose that, in a country where the females are allowed to show themselves so little, they would be closely wrapped up; but this is not the case. Many had forgotten their jackets and head coverings, especially the old women, who seemed particularly oblivious in this respect, and presented a most repulsive appearance when thus exposed. Among the younger ones I remarked many a handsome and expressive face; only they, too, ought not to be seen without their jackets, as their breasts hang down almost to their knees.

The complexion of the population varies from a dark to a light or reddish brown or copper colour. The Hottentots are black, but without that glossy appearance which distinguishes the negro.

It is extraordinary what a dread all these half-naked people have of the wet. It happened to commence raining a little, when they sprang like so many rope-dancers over every little puddle, and hastened to their huts and houses for shelter. Those who were travelling and obliged to continue their journey, held, instead of umbrellas, the leaves of the great fan-palm (Corypha umbraculifera) over their heads. These leaves are about four feet broad, and can be easily held, like fans. One of them is large enough for two persons.

But if the natives dread the rain, they have no fear of the heat. It is said that they run no risk from the rays of the sun, being protected by the thickness of their skulls and the fat beneath.

I was much struck by the peculiarity of some of the waggons, which consisted of wooden two-wheeled cars, roofed with palm leaves stretching out about four feet, before and behind, beyond the body of the car. These projections serve to protect the driver from the rain and the rays of the sun, whichever way they may chance to fall. The oxen, of which there was always only a pair, were yoked at such a distance from the waggon, that the driver could walk very conveniently in the intervening space.

I profited by the half-hour allowed for breakfast to proceed to the sea-shore, whence I observed a number of men busily employed on the dangerous rock in the middle of the most violent breakers. Some of them loosened, by the aid of long poles, oysters, mussels, etc., from the rocks, while others dived down to the bottom to fetch them up. I concluded that there must be pearls contained inside, for I could not suppose that human beings would encounter such risks for the sake of the fish alone; and yet this was the case, for I found, later, that though the same means are employed in fishing for pearls, it is on the eastern coast and only during the months of February and March.

The boats employed by these individuals were of two kinds. The larger ones, which contained about forty persons, were very broad, and composed of boards joined together and fastened with the fibres of the cocoa-tree; the smaller ones were exactly like those I saw in Tahiti, save that they appeared still more dangerous. The bottom was formed of the trunk of an extremely narrow tree, slightly hollowed out, and the sides of the planks are kept in their places by side and cross supports. These craft rose hardly a foot and a half out of the water, and their greatest breadth did not average quite a foot. There was a small piece of plank laid across as a seat, but the rower was obliged to cross his knees from want of room to sit with them apart.

The road, as I before mentioned, lay for the most part through forests of cocoa-trees, where the soil was very sandy and completely free from creepers and underwood; but near trees that did not bear fruit, the soil was rich, and both that and the trees covered with creepers in wild luxuriance. There were very few orchids.

We crossed four rivers, the Tindurch, Bentock, Cattura, and Pandura, two by means of boats, two by handsome wooden bridges.

The cinnamon plantations commenced about ten miles from Colombo; and on this side of the town are all the country-houses of the Europeans. They are very simple, shaded with cocoa-trees and surrounded with stone walls. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, we drove over two draw-bridges and through two fortified gateways into the town, which is far more pleasantly situated than Pointe de Galle, on account of its nearer proximity to the beautiful mountain ranges.

I only stopped a night here, and on the following morning again resumed my journey in the mail to the town of Candy, which is distant seventy-two miles.

We left on the 20th of October, at 5 o'clock in the morning. Colombo is a very extensive town. We drove through a succession of long, broad streets of handsome houses, all of which latter were surrounded by verandahs and colonnades. I was very much startled at the number of persons lying stretched out at full length under these verandahs, and covered with white clothes. I at first mistook them for corpses, but I soon perceived that their number was too great to warrant that supposition, and I then discovered that they were only asleep. Many, too, began to move and throw off their winding- sheets. I was informed that the natives prefer sleeping in this manner before the houses to sleeping inside of them.

The Calanyganga, an important river, is traversed by a long floating bridge; the road then branches off more and more from the sea-coast, and the character of the scenery changes. The traveller now meets with large plains covered with fine plantations of rice, the green and juicy appearance of which reminded me of our own young wheat when it first shoots up in spring. The forests were composed of mere leaved wood, the palms becoming at every step more rare; one or two might sometimes be seen, here and there, towering aloft like giants, and shading everything around. I can imagine nothing more lovely than the sight of the delicate creepers attached to the tall stems of these palms and twining up to their very crests.

After we had gone about sixteen miles, the country began to assume a more hilly aspect, and we were soon surrounded by mountains on every side. At the foot of each ascent we found extra horses in waiting for us; these were yoked to the ordinary team, and whirled us rapidly over all obstacles. Although there is a rise of about 2,000 feet on the road to Candy, we performed the distance, seventy-two miles, in eleven hours.

The nearer we approached our destination, the more varied and changing became the scenery. At one time we might be closely hemmed in by the mountains, and then the next moment they would stretch away, one above the other, while their summits seemed to contend which should outrival the rest in altitude and beauty of outline. They were covered, to the height of several thousand feet, with luxuriant vegetation, which, for the most part, then generally ceased, and gave way to the bare rock. I was not less interested, however, with the curious teams we sometimes met, than I was with the scenery. It is well known that Ceylon abounds in elephants, many of which are captured and employed for various purposes. Those that I now saw were yoked in twos or threes to large waggons, full of stones for mending the roads.

Four miles before reaching Candy, we came to the river Mahavilaganga, which is spanned by a masterly bridge of one arch. The materials of the bridge are most costly, consisting of satin- wood. In connection with this structure, I learned the following legend.

After the conquest of the island by the English, the natives did not give up the hope of once more attaining their independence, because one of their oracles had declared that it was as impossible for the enemy to obtain a lasting dominion over them, as it was for the opposite banks of the Mahavilaganga to be united by a road. When the bridge was begun, they smiled, and said that it could never be successfully completed. At present, I was told, they think of independence no more.

Near the bridge is a botanical garden which I visited the following day, and was astonished at its excellent arrangement, and the richness of its collection of flowers, plants, and trees.

Opposite the garden is one of the largest sugar-plantations, and, in the neighbourhood, a number of coffee-plantations.

In my opinion, the situation of Candy is most beautiful, but many affirm that it is too near the mountains, and lies in a pit. At any rate, this pit is a very lovely one, abounding in the most luxuriant vegetation. The town itself is small and ugly, consisting of nothing but a mass of small shops, with natives passing to and fro. The few houses that belong to Europeans, the places of business, and the barracks, are all outside the town, upon small hills. Large sheets of artificial water, surrounded by splendid stone balustrades, and shaded by alleys of the mighty tulip-tree, occupy a portion of the valley. On the side of one of these basins, stands the famous Buddhist temple of Dagoha, which is built in the Moorish- Hindostanee style, and richly ornamented.

On my leaving the coach, one of the passengers was kind enough to recommend me a good hotel, and to call a native and direct him where to conduct me. When I reached the hotel, the people there said that they were very sorry, but that all their rooms were occupied. I asked them to direct my guide to another establishment, which they did. The rascal led me away from the town, and, pointing to a hill which was near us, gave me to understand that the hotel was situated behind it. I believed him, as all the houses are built far apart; but on ascending the hill, I found nothing but a lonely spot and a wood. I wished to turn back, but the fellow paid no attention to my desire, and continued walking towards the wood. I then snatched my portmanteau from him, and refused to proceed any further. He endeavoured to wrest it from me, when, luckily, I saw in the distance two English soldiers, who hastened up in answer to my cries, and, on seeing this, the fellow ran off. I related my adventure to the soldiers, who congratulated me on the recovery of my luggage, and conducted me to the barracks, where one of the officers was kind enough to give orders that I should be conducted to another hotel.

My first visit was to the temple of Dagoha, which contains a valuable relic of the god Buddha, namely, one of his teeth, and, together with the out-buildings, is surrounded by a wall. The circumference of the principal temple is not very considerable, and the sanctuary, which contains the tooth, is a small chamber hardly twenty feet broad. Within this place all is darkness, as there are no windows, and inside the door, there is a curtain, to prevent the entry of any light. The walls and ceiling are covered with silk tapestry, which, however, has nothing but its antiquity to recommend it. It is true that it was interwoven with gold thread, but it appeared never to have been especially costly, and I cannot believe that it ever produced that dazzling effect which some travellers have described. Half of the chamber was engrossed by a large table, or kind of altar, inlaid with plates of silver, and ornamented round the edges with precious stones. On it stands a bell-shaped case, measuring at the bottom at least three feet in diameter, and the same in height. It is made of silver thickly gilt, and decorated with a number of costly jewels; there is a peacock in the middle entirely formed of precious stones; but all these treasures fail to produce any very great effect, from the clumsy and inartistic fashion in which they are set.

Under the large case there are six smaller ones, said to be of pure gold; under the last is the tooth of the all-powerful divinity. The outer case is secured by means of three locks, two of the keys belonging to which used to be kept by the English governor, while the third remained in the custody of the chief priest of the temple. A short time previous to my visit, however, the government had restored the two keys to the natives with great solemnities, and they are now confided to one of the native Radschas, or princes.

The relic itself is only shown to a prince or some other great personage; all other people must be content to believe the priest, who, for a small gratuity, has the politeness to describe the size and beauty of the tooth. The dazzling whiteness of its hue is said to eclipse that of ivory, while its form is described as being more beautiful than anything of the kind ever beheld, and its size to equal that of the tooth of an immense bullock.

An immense number of pilgrims come here every year to pay their adoration to this divine tooth.

"Where ignorance is bliss, 't is folly to be wise." How many people are there among us Christians who believe things which require quite as great an amount of faith? For instance, I remember witnessing, when I was a girl, a festival at Calvaria, in Gallicia, which is still celebrated every year. A great multitude of pilgrims go there to obtain splinters of the true cross. The priests manufacture little crosses of wax, on which, as they assure the faithful, they stick splinters of the real one. These little crosses, wrapped up in paper and packed in baskets, are placed ready for distribution, that is, for sale. Every peasant generally takes three: one to put in his room, one in his stable, and another in his barn. The most wonderful portion of the business is that these crosses must be renewed every year, as in that period they lose their divine power.

But let me return to Candy. In a second temple, adjoining that in which the relic is preserved, are two gigantic hollow statues of the god Buddha in a sitting posture, and both are said to be formed of the finest gold. Before these colossi stand whole rows of smaller Buddhas, of crystal, glass, silver, copper, and other materials. In the entrance hall, likewise, are several stone statues of different gods, with other ornaments, most of them roughly and stiffly executed. In the middle stands a small plain monument of stone, resembling a bell turned upside down; it is said to cover the grave of a Brahmin.

On the outer walls of the principal temple are wretched daubs in fresco, representing the state of eternal punishment. Some of the figures are being roasted, twitched with red-hot pincers, partly baked, or forced to swallow fire. Others again, are jammed between rocks, or having pieces of flesh cut out of their bodies, etc., but fire appears to play the principal part in these punishments.

The doors of the principal temple are made of metal, and the door posts of ivory. On the first are the most beautiful arabesques in basso-relief, and on the second, in inlaid work, representing flowers and other objects. Before the principal entrance, four of the largest elephant's teeth ever found are stuck up by way of ornament.

Ranged round the court-yard are the tents of the priests, who always go about with bare, shaven heads, and whose costume consists of a light yellow upper garment, which nearly covers the whole body. It is said that there were once 500 officiating priests in this temple; at present the divinity is obliged to content himself with a few dozen.

The chief part of the religious ceremonies of the Buddhists consists in presents of flowers and money. Every morning and evening a most horrible instrument, fit to break the drum of one's ear, and called a tam-tam, together with some shrill trumpets and fifes, is played before the door of the temple. To this soon succeeds a crowd of people from all sides, bringing baskets full of the most beautiful flowers, with which the priests adorn the altars, and that in a manner so elegant and tasty, that it cannot be surpassed.

Besides this temple, there are several others in Candy, but only one worth noticing. This is situated at the foot of a rocky hill, out of which has been hewn a statue of Buddha, thirty-six feet high, and over this is built the temple, which is small and elegant. The god is painted with the most glaring colours. The walls of the temple are covered with handsome red cement, and portioned out into small panels, in all of which the god Buddha appears al fresco. There are also a few portraits of Vischnu, another god. The colours on the southern wall of the temple are remarkable for their fine state of preservation.

Here, likewise, there is a funeral monument, like that of the Temple of Dagoha, not however, in the building itself, but under the lofty firmament of heaven, and shaded by noble trees.

Attached to the temples are frequently schools, in which the priests fulfil the duties of teachers. Near this particular temple, we saw about a dozen boys - girls are not allowed to attend school - busy writing. The copies for them were written very beautifully, by means of a stylus, on small palm-leaves, and the boys used the same material.

It is well worth any person's while to walk to the great valley through which the Mahavilaganga flows. It is intersected with a countless number of wave-like hills, many of which form regular terraces, and are planted with rice or coffee. Nature is here young and vigorous, and amply rewards the planter's toil. The darker portions of the picture are composed of palms or other trees, and the back-ground consists partly of towering mountains, in a holiday suit of green velvet, partly of stupendous and romantic rocks in all their gloomy nakedness.

I saw many of the principal mountains in Ceylon - giants, 8,000 feet high; but, unfortunately, not the most celebrated one, Adam's Peak, which has an altitude of 6,500 feet, and which, towards the summit is so steep, that it was necessary, in order to enable any one to climb up, to cut small steps in the rock, and let in an iron chain.

But the bold adventurer is amply repaid for his trouble. On the flat summit of the rock is the imprint of a small foot, five feet long. The Mahomedans suppose it to be that of our vigorous progenitor, Adam, and the Buddhists that of their large-toothed divinity, Buddha. Thousands of both sects flock to the place every year, to perform their devotions.

There still exists at Candy the palace of the former king, or emperor of Ceylon. It is a handsome stone building, but with no peculiar feature of its own; I should have supposed that it had been built by Europeans. It consists of a ground floor, somewhat raised, with large windows, and handsome porticoes resting upon columns. The only remarkable thing about it is a large hall in the interior, with its walls decorated with some rough and stiffly executed representations of animals in relief. Since the English deposed the native sovereign, the palace has been inhabited by the English resident, or governor.

Had I only arrived a fortnight sooner, I should have witnessed the mode of hunting, or rather snaring, elephants. The scene of operations is a spot on the banks of some stream or other, where these animals go to drink. A large place is enclosed with posts, leading up to which, and also skirted by stout posts, are a series of narrow passages. A tame elephant, properly trained, is then made fast in the middle of the large space, to entice by his cries the thirsty animals, who enter unsuspiciously the labyrinth from which they cannot escape, as the hunters and drivers follow, alarm them by their shouts, and drive them into the middle of the enclosure. The finest are taken alive, by being deprived of food for a short time. This renders them so obedient, that they quietly allow a noose to be thrown over them, and then follow the tame elephant without the least resistance. The others are then either killed or set at liberty, according as they possess fine tusks or not.

The preparations for capturing these animals sometimes last several weeks, as, besides enclosing the spot selected, a great many persons are employed to hunt up the elephants far and wide, and drive them gradually to the watering place.

Persons sometimes go elephant-hunting, armed merely with firearms; but this is attended with danger. The elephant, as is well known, is easily vulnerable in one spot only, - the middle of the skull. If the hunter happens to hit the mark, the monster lies stretched before him at the first shot; but if he misses, then woe to him, for he is speedily trampled to death by the enraged beast. In all other cases the elephant is very peaceable, and is not easily induced to attack human beings.

The Europeans employ elephants to draw and carry burdens - an elephant will carry forty hundred-weight; but the natives keep them more for show and riding.

I left Candy after a stay of three days, and returned to Colombo, where I was obliged to stop another day, as it was Sunday, and there was no mail.

I profited by this period to visit the town, which is protected by a strong fort. It is very extensive; the streets are handsome, broad, and clean; the houses only one story high, and surrounded by verandahs and colonnades. The population is reckoned at about 80,000 souls, of whom about 100 are Europeans, exclusive of the troops, and 200 descendants of Portuguese colonists, who founded a settlement here some centuries ago. The complexion of the latter is quite as dark as that of the natives themselves.

In the morning I attended mass. The church was full of Irish soldiers and Portuguese. The dress of the Portuguese was extremely rich; they wore ample robes with large folds, and short silk jackets; in their ears hung ear-rings of pearls and diamonds, and round their necks, arms, and even ankles, were gold and silver chains.

In the afternoon I took a walk to one of the numerous cinnamon plantations round Colombo. The cinnamon tree or bush is planted in rows; it attains at most a height of nine feet, and bears a white, scentless blossom. From the fruit, which is smaller than an acorn, oil is obtained by crushing and boiling it; the oil then disengages itself and floats on the top of the water. It is mixed with cocoa- oil and used for burning.

There are two cinnamon harvests in the course of the year. The first and principal one takes place from April to July, and the second from November to January. The rind is peeled from the branches by means of knives, and then dried in the sun; this gives it a yellowish or brownish tint. The best cinnamon is a light yellow, and not thicker than pasteboard.

The essential oil of cinnamon, used in medicine, is extracted from the plant itself, which is placed in a vessel full of water, and left to steep for eight to ten days. The whole mass is then transferred to a retort and distilled over a slow fire. In a short time, on the surface of the water thus distilled a quantity of oil collects, and this is then skimmed off with the greatest care.

In the animal kingdom, besides the elephants, I was much struck by the number and tameness of the ravens of Ceylon. In every small town and village may be seen multitudes of these birds, that come up to the very doors and windows and pick up everything. They play the part of scavengers here, just as dogs do in Turkey. The horned cattle are rather small, with humps between the shoulder-blades; these humps consist of flesh and are considered a great dainty.

In Colombo and Pointe de Galle there are likewise a great many large white buffaloes, belonging to the English government, and imported from Bengal. They are employed in drawing heavy loads.

Under the head of fruit, I may mention the pine-apple as being particularly large and good.

I found the temperature supportable, especially in the high country round about Candy, where, after some heavy rain, it might almost be called cold. In the evening and morning the thermometer stood as low as 61 degrees 25' Fah.; and in the middle of the day and in the sun, it did not rise above 79 degrees 25'. In Colombo and Pointe de Galle, the weather was fine, and the heat reached 95 degrees Fah.

On the 26th of October I again reached Pointe de Galle, and on the following day I embarked in another English steamer for India.