My motives for publishing this volume of Travels, will be best explained by a detail of the circumstances which gave rise to my journey to Morocco. In 1805, I was serving in the capacity of Physician to His Majesty's Forces, at the Depot Hospital in the Isle of Wight; whence, by dexterous management of the Army Medical Board[*], I was removed, and placed upon half-pay, in June of that year. At this period, it occurred to Mr. Turnbull, Chairman of the Committee of Merchants trading to the Levant, that it would be of advantage to the public, were the offices of Garrison Surgeon of Gibraltar, and Inspecting Medical Officer of the ships doing quarantine, which were then united in the person of Mr. Pym, separated and made distinct appointments; and he was pleased to think that, from my local knowledge, and other circumstances, I should be a proper person to fill the latter of these offices. This was also the opinion of His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, Governor of the garrison. Representations were accordingly made on the subject, to the then Secretary of State for the War and Colonial Department, Lord Castlereagh; and it was so fully understood that the proposition had been assented to on his part, that an order was issued from the Transport Board, to provide a passage for myself and family to Gibraltar. There I waited some months, in the expectation that the commission would be sent after me, but in vain. In the mean time, I received a communication from Mr. Mattra, British Consul General at Tangiers, requesting that I would cross over to Barbary, and attend His Excellency the Governor of Larache, First Minister of the Emperor of Morocco, then labouring under a dangerous illness. It was on my return from this journey, that I found a letter from Mr. Turnbull (See Appendix, No. III. p. 227), stating that my old friends of the Medical Board had been at their usual work of persecution, and by their scandalous misrepresentations to the new Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, Mr. Windham, had succeeded in preventing the appointment which His Royal Highness the Governor of Gibraltar had been graciously pleased to design for me.

During my residence in Barbary it was my good fortune to gain the approbation and friendship of the Emperor of Morocco, and of the principal Officers of his Court, by which I was enabled to give facilities to the procuring of fresh provisions for our Navy, and render to my country other services, not strictly in the line of my profession. (See the various documents at the end of Appendix.) Having succeeded in restoring the Governor of Larache to health, and performed some other cures, acceptable to the Emperor of Morocco, I considered the objects for which I had crossed over to Barbary accomplished, and returned to Gibraltar, after having received the most flattering marks of distinction, both from the Imperial Court, and from Lord Collingwood, Commander of the British fleet in the Mediterranean. The letter of the Emperor of Morocco to His Majesty (Appendix, No. X. p. 239) is an ample proof of the disposition of that prince in my favour.

Finding the principal aim of my voyage to Gibraltar frustrated by the machinations of the Medical Junta, whom I have already stated as ever active in mischief, I determined to return to England. The letter of the Emperor of Morocco to His Majesty, and a general certificate, couched in the strongest terms of approbation, and signed by all the principal merchants of Gibraltar, I thought were documents, which, added to my correspondence with Lord Collingwood, and the officers of his fleet, would not fail to have procured me a favourable reception, and some attention to my claims.

But the letter of the Emperor of Morocco, as it still remains unanswered, I cannot but believe has never been presented to His Majesty. Nay, the pressing solicitations, with which I have since been honoured on the part of the Emperor of Morocco, through his principal Minister, to return to that country, I have hitherto been obliged to delay answering, that I might not, on the one hand, insult, by evasive or false replies, a government from which I had experienced such friendship and respect; or, on the other hand, be compelled, by a true statement, to compromise my own.

The principal design of publishing this account of my journey to the Barbary States, is to shew the good policy, on the part of this country, of keeping upon terms of strict amity with the government of Morocco. The neglect, which, on this occasion, has been evinced of the Emperor's letter, I cannot but consider, in a public point of view, as extremely reprehensible, independently of the private injury it has occasioned to myself. Whether this neglect arose from the misrepresentations of the Army Medical Board, or from those of any other persons, I will not pretend to determine; but in any case, a most censurable disregard, even of the forms of civility, towards a Prince, who, however we may affect to despise his influence in the great political scale, has it always in his power materially to promote or to impede the interests of this country in the Levant, must attach to some quarter or other.

  [*] As the members of that body are expected shortly to be dismissed 
  from their situations, I think it right, lest at any future period 
  injustice should be done to innocent individuals, by confounding 
  them with the guilty, here to state that Sir Lucas Pepys, 
  Bart. Mr. Thomas Keate, and Mr. Francis Knight, Apothecaries, at 
  present compose the body illegally calling themselves the Army 
  Medical Board, whose conduct for a great many years has brought 
  disgrace and disaster on that important department. For a detail of 
  their conduct, see "An Analytical View of the Medical Department of 
  the British Army, by Charles Maclean, M.D." 8vo. published by 
  Stockdale, Pall Mall.



Inducement for the Journey - Arrive at Tangiers - Its History - Situation - Inhabitants - Military - Governor - Fortifications - Subterraneous Passage - Socco, or Market - Adjacent Villas - Invited to Larache.


Sketch of the History of Morocco - Road from Tangiers - Simplicity of the Peasants - Moors hospitable - Arrive at a Village - The ancient Zelis - Public Accommodations - Much infested with Vermin - Arzilla, a ruinous walled Town - Arrive at Larache.


Conducted to the Governor - Medical Hint from his Secretary - Governor recovers - Larache - Its Harbour, Shipping, and Inhabitants.


Excursion to Mamora, and thence lo Salee - Friendly Reception by the Governor of the latter - Rabat - Tower of Hassen - Shella - Mansooria - Alcasser - Quiber - Its Socco, or Market-place.


Leave Larache with an Escort - Curious Custom on returning from Mecca - Arrive at Tetuan.


Ill Usage of a Lieutenant of the Swiftsure - Disaffection of the Moorish Governor towards Great Britain.


Sail for Tetuan - Appearance of the Coast - Enter the Boosega River - Curious Towers of Defence - Custom-house - Female Dress - Enter Tetuan over a Road of unlevelled Rock - Disagreeable Streets - Well received by the Governor - Public Markets - Socco - An Auction Market.


Tetuan - The Jews much oppressed there - particularly the Females - Costume - Singularity of the Streets in the Jewish Town - Ceuta - Would be invaluable to England - Melilla - Summoned to visit the Emperor.


Journey to Larache - Annual Socco of St. Martin - No Christian permitted to witness it - Express Order for that Purpose in the Author's Favour - Specimen of native medical Skill - Reception at Larache - Complain of the Impositions of Governor Ash-Ash - Comparative Tariff - Effect the Renewal of the old Tariff with increasing Advantages.


Depart from Larache with a little Army - Moorish military Salute - Numerous Villages - Customary Procession of the Inhabitants - Judicial Arrangements - River Beth resembles the Po - Herds of Camels - Arrive at Mequinez - French Falsehood again put down - Excellent Road from Mequinez - Fertility and Luxuriance of the adjacent Country - Procession to the Sanctuary of Sidy Edris - Multiplicity of Saints - Ceremony demonstrative of the Emperor's Favour - Take possession of my new Residence.


Imperial Review of eighty thousand Cavalry - The Palace - Introduction to the Emperor - Visit the Seraglio - Beauty of the Sultana - Her Indisposition - Her Influence over the Emperor - His Person described.


Succession of the Sovereigns from their Founder to the present Emperor.


Responsibility of the Governors - Empire beautiful and productive - Humane Efforts of the Emperor - Blind Submission to his Will - Great Number of Negroes naturalized - The Moors might be truly formidable - Emperor's Brother - Fez divided into two Parts - Magnificent Mosques - Commercial Privileges - Indignities which Christians undergo - Singular Supply of Water - The Imperial Gardens - Propensity to defraud - Factories - Exports - Costume - Character - -Manner of Living - Domestic Vermin.


Fez - Debility of the Moors - Mosques - Antiquities, Roman, Carthaginian, and Saracen - Storks held in great Veneration - Baths - Bazars - Inhabitants - Residence - Menagerie - Marvellous Preservation of a Jew - Lions - Tigers - Leopards - Hyenas.


Sudden Departure from Fez - Arrive at Mequinez - Attend the Emperor - Melancholy Catastrophe - Expedition against wild Beasts - Extensive Palaces - Seraglio - Visit a Haram - Founders of the City - A fortified Town - Inhabitants - Jewish Town - Rich Attire of the higher Orders - Numerous Market-places - Furniture - Saints Houses - Imperial Field Sports - Pack of Greyhounds - Abundance of Game.


Courtship - Marriage - Funerals - Sabbath.


Depart from Morocco - Roads dreadfully infested by Robbers - A Tribe of aboriginal Freebooters - Description of Morocco - Filth of the common People - Tobacco disallowed - Justice of the Emperor.


Moorish Character - Form of Devotion - Meals - Revenue - Poll-tax on the Jews - Royal Carriages - Ostrich-riding - Public Schools - Watch-dogs.


Face and Produce of the Empire, natural and artificial.


Practice of Physic - Astrology - Poetry - Entertainment given by the Author to the Moors - Their Astonishment at the Effects of Electricity.


Prevalent Diseases - Abuse of Stimulants - Medicinal Well - Sorcery - Hydrophobia.


Depart for Gibraltar - Oppressive Heat - Robbers - Arrive at Larache - Affray of some English Sailors - Letter from the Governor to Lord Collingwood.


Embark for Gibraltar - Precautionary Hints.


No. I. - Letter from J. Turnbull, Esq. General Chairman of the Merchants trading to the Mediterranean, recommending Dr. Buffa for a civil medical Appointment at Gibraltar. - Dated 5th August 1805.

No. II. - Letter from the Secretary of the Transport Board, informing Dr. Buffa that a Passage in one of His Majesty's Transports to Gibraltar was ordered for him and his Family.

No. III. - Extract of a Letter from John Turnbull, Esq. Chairman of the Committee of Merchants trading to the Levant, &c. to Dr. Buffa.

No. IV. - Extract of a Letter from John Ross, Esq. Acting Consul General at Tangiers, to Dr. Buffa.

No V. - Letter sent by a Courier from the Court of Morocco to J. Ross, Esq. by Permission of His Imperial Majesty's First Minister, after Dr. Buffa's having finally settled the Difference excited at that Time by the French Party in Barbary, between that Country and Great Britain.

No. VI. - Letter from Captain Stewart, of His Majesty's Ship Seahorse, to the Government of Morocco, for Supplies; which Dr. Buffa was directed to answer, after having procured the said Supplies without any Charge.

No. VII. - Letter from Admiral the Right Hon. Lord Collingwood, to the Government of Morocco, in answer to Dr. Buffa's Official Letter to Captain Stewart, touching on various public Matters.

No. VIII. - An Official Letter written by Dr. Buffa, by particular Direction of the Emperor of Morocco, in answer to a Letter of Lord Collingwood of the 8th July 1806, giving his Lordship Information of the happy Termination of the Negotiations which Dr. Buffa carried on, and which all the Representations of Mr. Ross to that Court were unable to effect; which gave rise to a very long and expensive Correspondence between Mr. Ross and Dr. Buffa, Long carried on by constant Couriers.

No. IX. - Letter written by Command of the Emperor of Morocco, to Lord Collingwood, in favour of Dr. Buffa.

No. X. - Translation of a Letter from the Emperor of Morocco to the King. Referred to in the Petition.

Nos. XI. and XII. - Copies of two Letters received from the Government bf Morocco, to which Dr. Buffa has hitherto been unable to reply.