CHAPTER V. Account of Captain Cook during the Period between his Second Voyage and his Voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

The able manner in which Captain Cook had conducted the preceding voyage, the discoveries he had made, and his complete determination of the grand point he had been sent to ascertain, justly and powerfully recommended him to the protection and encouragement of all those who had patronized the undertaking. No alterations had occurred, during his absence, in the presidency of the admiralty department. The noble lord, whose extensive views had taken such a lead in the plans of navigation and discovery, still continued at the head of that board; and it could not be otherwise than a high satisfaction to him, that so extraordinary a degree of success had attended his designs for the enlargement of science. His lordship lust no time in representing Captain Cook's merits to the king; nor did his majesty stand in need of solicitations to shew favour to a man, who had so eminently fulfilled his royal and munificent intentions. Accordingly our navigator, on the 9th of August, was raised to the rank of a post captain. Three days afterwards, he received a more distinguished and substantial mark of the approbation of government: for he was then appointed a captain in Greenwich Hospital; a situation which was intended to afford him a pleasing and honourable reward for his illustrious labours and services.

It will easily be supposed, that the lovers of science would, in general, be peculiarly attentive to the effects resulting from Captain Cook's discoveries. The additions he had made to the knowledge of geography, navigation, and astronomy, and the new views he had opened of the diversified state of human life and manners, could not avoid commanding their esteem, and exciting their admiration. With many persons of philosophic literature he was in the habits of intimacy and friendship; he was particularly acquainted with Sir John Pringle, at that time president of the Royal Society. It was natural, therefore, that his scientific friends should wish him to become a member of this learned body; the consequence of which was, that, in the latter end of the year 1775, he was proposed as a candidate for election. On the 29th of February, 1776, he was unanimously chosen; and he was admitted on the 7th of March. That same evening, a paper was read, which he had addressed to Sir John Pringle, containing an account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of his majesty's ship the Resolution, during her voyage round the world. Another paper, at the request of the president, was communicated by him on the 18th of April. relative to the tides in the South Seas. The tides particularly considered were those in the Endeavour River, on the east coast of New Holland.

A still greater honour was in reserve for Captain Cook, than the election of him to be a common member of the Royal Society. It was resolved by Sir John Pringle and the council of the society, to bestow upon him the estimable prize of the gold medal, for the best experimental paper, of the year; and no determination could be founded to greater wisdom and justice. If Captain Cook had made no important discoveries, if he had not determined the question concerning a southern continent, his name would have been entitled to immortality, on account of his humane attention to, and his unparalleled success in preserving the lives and health of his seamen.

He had good reason, upon this head, to assume the pleasurable, but modest language, with which he has concluded his narrative of his second navigation round the globe: 'Whatever,' says he, 'may be the public judgment about other matters, it is with real satisfaction, and without claiming any merit but that of attention to my duty, that I can, conclude this account with an observation, which facts enable us to make, that our having discovered the possibility of preserving health among a numerous ship's company, for such a length of time, in such varieties of climate, and amidst such continued hardships and fatigues, will make this voyage remarkable, in the opinion of every benevolent person, when the disputes about the southern continent shall have ceased to engage the attention, and to divide the judgment of philosophers.'

It was the custom, of Sir John Pringle, at the delivery of Sir Godfrey Copley's annual medal, to give an elaborate discourse, containing the history of that part of science for the improvement of which the medal was conferred. Upon the present occasion, the president had a subject to enlarge upon, which was perfectly congenial to his disposition and studies. His own life had been much employed in pointing out the means which tended not only to cure, but to prevent, the diseases of mankind; and, therefore, it was with peculiar pleasure and affection that he celebrated the conduct of his friend, who, by precautions equally wise and simple, had rendered the circumnavigation of the globe, so far as health is concerned, quite a harmless undertaking. Towards the beginning of his discourse, Sir John justly asks, 'What inquiry can be so useful as that which hath for its object the saving the lives of men? and when shall we find one more successful than that before us? Here,' adds the president, 'are no vain boastings of the empiric, nor ingenious and delusive theories of the dogmatist; but a concise and artless, and an incontested relation of the means by which, under divine favour, Captain Cook, with a company of a hundred and eighteen men, performed a voyage of three years and eighteen days, throughout all the climates, from fifty-two degrees north to seventy-one degrees south, with the loss of only one man by sickness. I would now inquire.' proceeds Sir John Pringle, 'of the most conversant to the study of bills of mortality, whether, in the most healthful climate, and in the best condition of life, they have ever found so small a number of deaths within that space of time? How great and agreeable then must our surprise be, after perusing the histories of long navigations in former days, when so many perished by marine diseases, to find the air of the sea acquitted of all malignity; and, in fine, that a voyage round the world may be undertaken with less danger, perhaps, to health, than a common tour in Europe!'

In the progress of his discourse; the president recounted the dreadful calamities and destruction the scurvy had heretofore brought upon mariners in voyages of great length; after which he pointed out at large, and illustrated with his own observations, the methods pursued by Captain Cook for preserving the health of his men. In conclusion, Sir John remarked, that the Royal Society never more cordially or more meritoriously bestowed the gold medal, that faithful symbol of their esteem and affection. 'For if,' says he, 'Rome decreed the civic crown to him who saved the life of a single citizen, what wreaths are due to that man, who, having himself saved many, perpetuates in your transactions the means by which Britain may now, on the most distant voyages, preserve numbers of her intrepid sons, her mariners; who, braving every danger, have so liberally contributed to the fame, to the opulence, and to the maritime empire of their country!'[10]

  [Footnote 10: Sir John Pringle's Six Discourses, p. 145-147, 
  199. - It cannot but be acceptable to insert here Captain Cook's 
  enumeration of the several causes to which, under the care of 
  Providence, the uncommon good state of health, experienced by his 
  people, was owing. I shall not trespass upon the reader's time in 
  mentioning them all, but confine myself to such as were found the 
  most useful.

  'We were furnished with a quantity of malt, of which was made 
  sweet wort. To such of the men as shewed the least symptoms 
  of the scurvy, and also to such as were thought to be threatened 
  with that disorder, this was given, from one to two or three pints 
  a day each man; or in such proportion as the surgeon found 
  necessary, which sometimes amounted to three quarts. This is, 
  without doubt, one of the best antiscorbutic sea medicines yet 
  discovered; and if used in time, will, with proper attention to 
  other things, I am persuaded, prevent the scurvy from making any 
  great progress for a considerable while. But I am not altogether 
  of opinion that it will cure it at sea.

  'Sour krout, of which we had a large quantity; is not only 
  a wholesome vegetable food, but in my judgment, highly 
  antiscorbutic; and it spoils not by keeping. A pound of this was 
  served to each man, when at sea, twice a week, or oftener, as was 
  thought necessary.

  'Portable broth was another great article of which we had a 
  large supply. An ounce of this to each man, or such other 
  proportion as circumstances pointed out, was boiled in their 
  pease, three days in the week; and when we were in places where 
  vegetables were to be got, it was boiled with them, and wheat or 
  oatmeal, ever morning for breakfast; and also with pease and 
  vegetables for dinner. It enabled us to make several nourishing 
  and wholesome messes, and was the means of making the people eat a 
  greater quantity of vegetables than they would otherwise have 

  'Rob of lemon and orange is an antiscorbutic we were not 
  without. The surgeon made use of it in many cases with great 

  'Amongst the articles of victualling, we were supplied with 
  sugar in the room of oil, and with wheat for 
  a part of our oatmeal; and were certainly gainers by the 
  exchange. Sugar, I apprehend, is a very good antiscorbutic; 
  whereas oil (such as the navy is usually supplied with), I am of 
  opinion, has the contrary effect.

  'But the introduction of the most salutary articles, either as 
  provisions or medicines, will generally prove unsuccessful, unless 
  supported by certain regulations. On this principle, many years' 
  experience, together with some hints I had from Sir Hugh Palliser, 
  Captains Campbell, Wallis, and other intelligent officers, enabled 
  me to lay a plan whereby all was to be governed.

  'The crew were at three watches, except upon some extraordinary 
  occasions. By this means they were not so much exposed to the 
  weather, as if they had been at watch and watch; and had generally 
  dry clothes to shift themselves, when they happened to get wet. 
  Care was also taken to expose them as little to wet weather as 

  'Proper methods were used to keep their persons, hammocks, 
  bedding, clothes, &c. constantly clean and dry. Equal care was 
  taken to keep the ship clean and dry betwixt decks. Once or twice 
  a week she was aired with fires; and when this could not be done, 
  she was smoked with gunpowder, mixed with vinegar and water. I had 
  also, frequently, a fire made in an iron pot at the bottom of the 
  well, which was of great use in purifying the air in the lower 
  parts of the ship. To this, and to cleanliness, as well in the 
  ship as amongst the people, too great attention cannot he paid; 
  the least neglect occasions a putrid and disagreeable smell below, 
  which nothing but fires will remove.

  'Proper attention was paid to the ships coppers, so that they were 
  kept constantly clean.

  'The fat, which boiled out of the salt beef and pork, I never 
  suffered to be given to the people; being of opinion that it 
  promotes the scurvy.

  'I was careful to take in water wherever it was to be got, even 
  though we did not want it. Because I look upon fresh water from 
  the shore to be more wholesome than that which has been kept some 
  time on board a ship. Of this essential article we were never at 
  an allowance, but had always plenty for every necessary purpose. 
  Navigators in general cannot, indeed, expect, nor would they wish 
  to meet with such advantages in this respect, as fell to my lot. 
  The nature of our voyage carried us into very high latitudes. But 
  the hardships and dangers, inseparable from that situation, were 
  in some degree compensated by the singular felicity we enjoyed, of 
  extracting inexhaustible supplies of fresh water from an ocean 
  strewed with ice.

  'We came to few places, where either the art of man, or the bounty 
  of nature, had not provided some sort of refreshment or other, 
  either in the animal or vegetable way. It was my first care to 
  procure whatever of any kind could be met with, by every means in 
  my power; and to oblige our people to make use thereof, both by my 
  example and authority; but the benefits arising from refreshments 
  of any kind soon became so obvious, that I had little occasion to 
  recommend the one to exert the other.'

  In a letter which Captain Cook wrote to Sir John Pringle, just 
  before he embarked on his last voyage, dated Plymouth Sound, July 
  7, 1776, he expressed himself as follows: 'I entirely agree with 
  you, that the dearness of the rob of lemons and of oranges will 
  hinder them from being furnished in large quantities. But I do not 
  think this so necessary; for, though they may assist other things, 
  I have no great opinion of them alone. Nor have I a higher opinion 
  of vinegar. My people had it very sparingly during the late 
  voyage, and, towards the latter part none at all; and yet we 
  experienced no ill effect from the want of it. The custom of 
  washing the inside of the ship with vinegar, I seldom observed; 
  thinking that fire and smoke answered the purpose much better.']

One circumstance alone was wanting to complete the pleasure and celebrity arising from the assignment of Sir Godfrey Copley's medal. Captain Cook was not himself present, to hear the discourse of the president, and to receive the honour conferred upon him. Some months before the anniversary of St. Andrew's day, he had sailed on his last expedition. The medal, therefore, was delivered into the hands of Mrs. Cook, whose satisfaction at being intrusted with so valuable a pledge of her husband's reputation cannot be questioned. Neither can it be doubted, but that the captain, before his departure from England, was fully apprized of the mark of distinction which was intended for him by the Royal Society.

Captain Cook, after the conclusion of his second voyage, was called upon to appear in the world in the character of an author. In the account that was published, by authority, of his former circumnavigation of the globe, as well as of those which had been performed by the Captains Byron, Cateret, and Wallis, it was thought requisite to procure the assistance of a professed literary man, whose business it should be to draw up a narrative from the several journals of these commanders. Accordingly, Dr. Hawkesworth, as is universally known, was employed for the purpose. In the present case, it was not esteemed necessary to have recourse to such an expedient. Captain Cook was justly regarded as sufficiently qualified to relate his own story. His journal only required to be divided into chapters, and perhaps to be amended by a few verbal corrections. It is not speaking extravagantly to say, that in point of composition, his history of his voyage reflects upon him no small degree of credit. His style is natural, clear, and manly; being well adapted to the subject and to his own character: and it is possible that a pen of more studied elegance would not have given any additional advantage to the narration. It was not till some time after Captain Cook's leaving England that the work was published; but, in the meanwhile, the superintendence of it was undertaken by his learned and valuable friend, Dr. Douglas, whose late promotion to the mitre hath afforded pleasure to every literary man, of every denomination. When the Voyage appeared it came recommended by the accuracy and excellence of its charts, and by a great variety of engravings, from the curious and beautiful drawings of Mr. Hodges. This work was followed by the publication of the original astronomical observations, which had been made by Mr. Wales in the Resolution, and by Mr. Bayley in the Adventure. It was at the expense of the commissioners of longitude that these observations were made, and it was by their order that they were printed. The book of Mr. Wales and Mr. Bayley displays, in the strongest light, the scientific use and value of Captain Cook's voyage.

Some of the circumstances which have now been mentioned have designedly been brought forward more early in point of time than should otherwise have been done, in order to prevent any interruption in the course of the subsequent narrative.

Though Captain Cook was expected to, sit down in repose, after his toils and labours, the design of farther discoveries was not laid aside. The illusion, indeed of a Terra Australis incognita, to any purposes of commerce, colonization, and utility, had been dispelled: but there was another grand question which remained to be determined; and that was the practicability of a northern passage to the Pacific Ocean.

It had long been a favourite object with navigators, and particularly with the English, to discover a shorter, a more commodious, and a more profitable course of sailing to Japan and China, and, indeed, to the East Indies in general, than by making the tedious circuit of the Cape of Good Hope. To find a western passage round North America had been attempted by several bold adventurers, from Frobisher's first voyage, in 1576, to those of James and of Fox, in 1631. By these expeditions a large addition was made to the knowledge of the northern extent of America, and Hudson's and Baffin's Bays were discovered. But the wished-for passage, on that side, into the Pacific Ocean, was still unattained. Nor were the various attempts of our countrymen, and of the Dutch, to find such a passage, by sailing round the north of Asia, in an eastern direction, attended with better success. Wood's failure in 1676, appears to have concluded the long list of unfortunate expeditions in that century. The discovery, if not absolutely despaired of, had been unsuccessful in such a number of instances, that it ceased for many years, to be an object of pursuit.

The question was again revived in the present century. Mr. Dobbs, a warm advocate for the probability of a north-west passage through Hudson's Bay, once more recalled the attention of this country to that undertaking. In consequence of the spirit by him excited, Captain Middleton was sent out by government, in 1741, and Captains Smith and More, in 1746. But though an act of Parliament had been passed, which secured a reward of twenty thousand pounds to the discovery of a passage, the accomplishment of this favourite object continued at as great a distance as ever.

To ascertain a matter of such importance and magnitude in navigation, was reserved to be another glory of his present majesty's reign. The idea was peculiarly suited to the enlightened mind of the noble lord at the head of the admiralty, and he adopted it with ardour. Preparatory to the execution of the design, Lord Mulgrave sailed with two ships, to determine how far navigation was practicable towards the north pole. In this expedition, his lordship met with the same insuperable difficulties which had been experienced by former voyagers. Nevertheless, the expectation of opening a communication between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, by a northerly course, was not abandoned; and it was resolved that a voyage should be undertaken for that purpose.

For the conduct of an enterprise, the operations of which were intended to be so new, so extensive, and so various, it was evident that great ability, skill, and experience were indispensably necessary. That Captain Cook was of all men the best qualified for carrying it into execution was a matter that could not be called in question. But, however ardently it might be wished that he would take upon him the command of the service, no one (not even his friend and patron Lord Sandwich himself) presumed to solicit him upon the subject. The benefits he had already conferred on science and navigation, and the labours and dangers he had gone through were so many and great, that it was not deemed reasonable to ask him to engage in fresh perils. At the same time, nothing could be more natural, than to consult him upon every thing relative to the business; and his advice was particularly requested with regard to the properest person for conducting the voyage. To determine this point, the captain, Sir Hugh Palliser, and Mr. Stephens, were invited to Lord Sandwich's to dinner. Here, besides taking into consideration what officer should be recommended to his majesty for accomplishing the purposes in view, many things were said concerning the nature of the design. Its grandeur and dignity, the consequences of it to navigation and science, and the completion it would give to the whole system of discoveries, were enlarged upon in the course of the conversation. Captain Cook was so fired with the contemplation and representation of the object, that he started up, and declared, that he himself would undertake the direction of the enterprise. It is easy to suppose, with what pleasure the noble lord, and the other gentlemen, received a proposal, which was so agreeable to their secret wishes, and which they thought of the highest importance towards attaining the ends of the voyage. No time was lost by the Earl of Sandwich, in laying the matter before the king; and Captain Cook was appointed to the command of the expedition, on the 10th of February, 1776. At the same time, it was agreed that on his return to England, he should be restored to his situation at Greenwich; and, if no vacancy occurred during the interval, the officer who succeeded him was to resign in his favour.

The command and the direction of the enterprise being thus happily settled, it became an object of great importance to determine what might be the best course that could be given to the voyage. All former navigators round the globe had returned to Europe by the Cape of Good Hope. But to Captain Cook the arduous task was now assigned, of attempting it by reaching the high northern latitudes between Asia and America; and the adoption of this resolution was, I believe, the result of his own reflections upon the subject. The usual plan, therefore, of discovery was reversed; so that instead of a passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, one from the latter into the former was to be tried. Whatever openings or inlets there might be on the east side of America, that lie in a direction which could afford any hopes of a passage, it was wisely foreseen, that the ultimate success of the expedition would depend upon there being an open sea between the west side of that continent and the extremities of Asia. Accordingly Captain Cook was ordered to proceed into the Pacific Ocean, through the chain of the new islands which had been visited by him in the southern tropic. After having crossed the equator into the northern parts of that ocean, he was then to hold such a course as might probably fix many interesting points in geography, and produce intermediate discoveries, in his progress northward to the principal scene of his operations. With regard to his grand object, it was determined, for the wisest reasons, and after the most mature deliberation and inquiry, that upon his arrival on the coast of New Albion, he should proceed northward as far as the latitude of 65 , and not lose any time in exploring rivers or inlets, or upon any other account, until he had gotten into that latitude.

To give every possible encouragement to the prosecution of the great design in view, the motives of interest were added to the obligations of duty. In the act of parliament which passed in 1745, the reward of twenty thousand pounds had been only held out to the ships belonging to any of his majesty's subjects, while his majesty's own ships were excluded. Another, and more capital defect in this act was, that it confined the reward to such ships alone as should discover a passage though Hudson's Bay. By a new law, which passed in 1776, both these deficiencies were effectually remedied. It was now enacted, - 'That if any ship, belonging to any of his majesty's subjects, or to his majesty, shall find out, and sail through any passage by sea, between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; in any direction, or parallel of the northern hemisphere, to the northward of the 52 of northern latitude, the owners of such ships, if belonging to any of his majesty's subject, or the commander, officers, and seamen of such ship belonging to his majesty, shall receive, as a reward for such discovery, the sum of twenty thousand pounds.'

That every thing might be done which could facilitate the success of the grand expedition, Lieutenant Pickersgill was sent out, in 1776, with directions to explore the coast of Baffin's Bay; and in the next year, Lieutenant Young was commissioned not only to examine the western parts of that bay, but to endeavour to find a passage on that side, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Nothing was performed by either of these gentlemen that promoted the purposes of Captain Cook's voyage.

Two vessels were fixed upon by government for the intended service; the Resolution and the Discovery. The command of the former was given to Captain Cook, and of the other to Captain Clerke. To the Resolution was assigned the same complement of officers and men which she had during her preceding voyage; and the only difference in the establishment of the Discovery from that of the Adventure, was in the single instance of her having no marine officer on board.

From the time of the two ships being put into commission, the greatest degree of attention and zeal, was exerted by the Earl of Sandwich and the rest of the board of admiralty, to have them equipped in the most complete manner. Both the vessels were supplied with as much of every necessary article as could conveniently be stowed, and with the best of each kind that could be procured. Whatever, likewise, the experience of the former voyages had shewn to be of any utility in preserving the health of seamen, was provided in large abundance. That some permanent benefit might be conveyed to the inhabitants of Otaheite, and of the other islands of the Pacific Ocean, whom our navigators might happen to visit, it was graciously commanded by his majesty, that an assortment of useful animals should be carried out to those countries. Accordingly, a bull, two cows with their calves, and several sheep, with hay and corn for their subsistence, were taken on board; and it was intended to add other serviceable animals to these, when Captain Cook should arrive at the Cape of Good Hope. With the same benevolent purposes, the captain was furnished with a sufficient quantity, of such of our European garden seeds, as could not fail of being a valuable present to the newly discovered islands, by adding fresh supplies of food to their own vegetable productions. By order of the board of admiralty, many articles besides were delivered to our commander, which were calculated, in various ways, to improve the condition of the natives of the other hemisphere. Still farther to promote a friendly intercourse with them, and to carry on a traffic that might be profitable on both sides, an ample assortment was provided of iron tools and trinkets. An attention no less humane was extended to the wants of our own people. Some additional clothing, adapted to a cold climate, was ordered for the crews of the two ships; and nothing was denied to our navigators that could be supposed to be in the least conducive to their health, or even to their convenience.

It was not to these things only, that the extraordinary care of Lord Sandwich, and of the other gentlemen at the head of the naval department, was confined. They were equally solicitous to afford every assistance that was calculated to render the expedition of public utility. Several astronomical and nautical instruments were entrusted, by the board of longitude, to Captain Cook, and Mr. King his second lieutenant; who had undertaken to make the necessary observations, during the voyage, for the improvement of astronomy and navigation. It was originally intended that a professed observator should be sent out in the Resolution; but the scientific abilities of the captain and his lieutenant rendered the appointment of such a person absolutely unnecessary. The case was somewhat different with regard to the Discovery. Mr. William Bayley, who had already given satisfactory proofs of his skill and diligence as an observator, while he was employed in Captain Furneaux's ship, during the late voyage was engaged a second time in that capacity, and appointed to sail on board Captain Clerke's vessel. The department of natural history was assigned to Mr. Anderson, the surgeon of the Resolution, who was as willing, as he was well qualified, to describe every thing in that branch of science which should occur worthy of notice. From the remarks of this gentleman, Captain Cook had derived considerable assistance in his last navigation; especially with regard to the very copious vocabulary of the language of Otaheite, and the comparative specimen of the languages of the other islands which had then been visited. There were several young men among our commander's sea officers, who, under his direction, could be usefully employed in constructing charts, in taking views of the coasts and headlands near which our voyagers might pass, and in drawing plans of the bays and harbours in which they should anchor. Without a constant attention to this object the captain was sensible, that his discoveries could not be rendered profitable to future navigators. That he might go out with every help, which could serve to make the result of the voyage entertaining to the generality of readers, as well as instructive to the sailor and the scholar. Mr. Webber was fixed upon, and engaged to embark in the Resolution, for the express purpose of supplying the unavoidable imperfections of written accounts, by enabling our people to preserve and to bring home, such drawings of the most memorable scenes of their transactions, as could only be executed by a professed and skilful artist.

As the last mark of the extraordinary attention which the Earl of Sandwich, Sir Hugh Palliser, and others of the board of admiralty had uniformly shewn to the preparations for the expedition, they went down to Long Reach, and paid a visit to the ships, on the 8th of June, to examine whether everything was completed conformably to their intentions and orders, and to the satisfaction of all who were to embark in the voyage. His lordship and the rest of the admiralty board, together with several noblemen and gentlemen of their acquaintance, honoured Captain Cook, on that day, with their company at dinner. Both upon their coming on board, and their going ashore, they were saluted with seventeen guns, and with three cheers.

As the ships were to touch at Otaheite and the Society Islands, it had been determined not to omit the only opportunity which might ever offer of carrying Omai back to his native country. Accordingly, he left London, on the 24th of June, in company with Captain Cook; and it was with a mixture of regret and satisfaction that he took his departure. When England, and those who during the stay, had honoured him with their protection or friendship, were spoken of, his spirits were sensibly affected, and it was with difficulty that he could refrain from tears. But his eyes began to sparkle with joy, as soon as ever the conversation was turned to his own islands. The good treatment he received in England had made a deep impression upon his mind; and he entertained the highest ideas of the country and of the people. Nevertheless, the pleasing prospect he had before him of returning home, loaded with what, he well knew, would there be esteemed invaluable treasures, and the flattering hope, which the possession of these afforded him, of attaining a distinguished superiority among his countrymen, were considerations which operated, by degrees, to suppress every uneasy sensation. By the time he had gotten on board the ship, he appeared to be quite happy.

His majesty had furnished Omai with an ample provision of every article which our English navigators, during their former intercourse with Otaheite and the Society Islands, had observed to be in any estimation there, either as useful or ornamental. Many presents, likewise, of the same nature, had been made him by Lord Sandwich, Sir Joseph Banks, and several other gentlemen and ladies of his acquaintance. In short, both during his residence in England, and at his departure from it, no method had been neglected, which could be calculated to render him the instrument of conveying to the inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, the most exalted ideas of the greatness and generosity of the British nation.