NOTES.

{9} The sextant is a mathematical instrument by which the different degrees of longitude and latitude are determined, and the hour known. The chronometers also are set by it. In order to find the latitude the ship is in, an observation is taken at noon, but only when the sun shines. This last is absolutely necessary, since it is from the shadow cast upon the figures of the instrument that the reckoning is made. The longitude can be determined both morning and afternoon, as the sun, in this case, is not necessary.

{11} The heat does not require to be very great in order to melt the pitch in a ship's seams. I have seen it become soft, and form bladders, when the thermometer stood at 81.5 in the sun.

{12} Every four hours the state of the wind, how many miles the vessel has made, in fact, every occurrence, is noted down in the log with great exactitude. The captain is obliged to show this book to the owners of the ship at the conclusion of the voyage.

{13} Some years ago a sailor made an attempt to scale the Sugarloaf. He succeeded in attaining the summit, but never came down again. Most likely he made a false step and was precipitated into the sea.

{14} The worthy Lallemand family received her, a few days after her arrival into their house.

{23a} The princess was three weeks old.

{23b} Rockets and small fireworks are always let off at every religious festival, some before the church, and others at a short distance from it. The most ludicrous part of the affair is, that this is always done in open day.

{27} They are differently paid, according to what they can do. The usual hire of a maid-servant is from ten to twelve shillings per month; for a cook, twenty-four to forty; for a nurse, thirty-eight to forty; for a skilful labourer, fifty to seventy.

{34a} Truppa is a term used to designate ten mules driven by a negro; in most instances a number of truppas are joined together, and often make up teams or caravans of 100 or 200 mules. Everything in the Brazils is conveyed upon mules.

{34b} A cord, with a noose at the end; the native inhabitants of South America use it so skilfully that they catch the most savage animals with it.

{38} Fazenda is equivalent to our word "plantation."

{39} Kabi is African grass, which is planted all over the Brazils, as grass never grows there of its own accord. It is very high and reed-like.

{40} Rost (roaster) is employed to denote partly a strip of low brushwood, partly the place where a wood has stood previously to being burnt.

{42} All through Brazil, carna secca is one of the principal articles of food, both for whites and blacks. It comes from Buenos Ayres, and consists of beef cut into long, thin, broad stripes, salted and dried in the open air.

{47} Under the term "whites," are included not only those Europeans who have lately immigrated, but also the Portuguese, who have been settled in the country for centuries.

{50} This wholesome plant grows very commonly in the Brazils.

{53} In the southern hemisphere the seasons, as regards the months, are exactly the contrary to what they are in the northern. For instance, when it is winter on one side of the Equator it is summer on the other, etc.

{55} Maroon negroes are those negroes who have run away from their masters. They generally collect in large bands, and retire into the recesses of the virgin forests, whence, however, they often emerge to steal and plunder; their depredations are not unfrequently accompanied by murder.

{59} The Rio Plata is one of the largest rivers in Brazil.

{60} Other captains assured me that it was only possible for men-of-war to pass through the Straits of Magellan, as the passage requires a great number of hands. Every evening the ship must be brought to an anchor, and the crew must constantly be in readiness to trim or reef the sails, on account of the various winds which are always springing up.

{62} The glass sank in the day-time to 48 and 50 degrees, and at night to 28 degrees below Zero.

{73} All the Indians are Christians (Protestants), but I fear only in name.

{76} Elephantiasis, in this country, generally shows itself in the feet, and extends up as far as the calves of the legs. These portions of the body, when so affected, are greatly swollen, and covered with scurf and blotches, so that they really might be taken for those of an elephant.

{78} I purposely abstain from mentioning the names of any of the gentlemen at Tahiti, a piece of reserve which I think entitles me to their thanks.

{86} Up to the present period, Tahiti has produced nothing for exportation, and therefore all vessels have to clear out in ballast. The island is important to the French, as a port where their ships in the Pacific may stop and refit.

{91a} The expense of living at an hotel in Macao, Victoria, and Canton is from four to six dollars a-day (16s. to 24s.).